Tel./fax (32) 262 27 15 lub (32) 262 24 92 sekretariat@metalurg.com.pl
Zaznacz stronę

Although the British and French were satisfied, a British diplomat in Berlin claimed that he had been informed by a member of Hitler`s entourage that Hitler had angrily told Hitler shortly after the meeting with Chamberlain: „Gentlemen, this was my first international conference, and I can assure you that it will be my last.” [45] Another time, Chamberlain told him, „If ever this stupid old man came here interfering with his umbrella, I would kick him and jump on his stomach in front of the photographers.” [45] [46] [47] In one of his public speeches in Munich, Hitler said, „Thank God we don`t have umbrella politicians in this country.” [45] [46] [48] The Czechoslovaks wanted to perish in combat and mobilized the army. A quarter of a million disgruntled Czechs gathered in front of Prague`s Rudolfinum, where senior communist official Klement Gottwald spoke to them. The France has also begun to mobilize its troops in the event of imminent war. President Beneš refused to start a war without the Western powers. Although Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede the Sudetenland before September 28, otherwise war would break out, the Munich Accords were not signed until September 30 at 1:30 a.m. .m .m, even though they were dated September 29. The signatories were Hitler, the British Chamberlain, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier and Mussolini in Italy. The Sudetenland would join the Empire on October 10 and the fate of the other territories would be decided by an international commission. Britain and France marched on gas and told Czechoslovakia that they had to fight Germany alone or act in accordance with the Munich accords. But not all Germans were enthusiastic about living in the Reich. Before the occupation, about 30,000 Germans and 115,000 Czechs fled to the interior of Czechoslovakia. When the famous writer Karel Čapek, who passionately defended democratic ideals, died on December 25, 1938, the National Theatre in Prague refused to raise a black flag in his honor. After the founding of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia, the Communist Party was banned and deprived of its property.

The Communists were also expelled from parliament. The Liberated Theatre, which presented anti-fascist productions with the brilliant duo of actors Jiří Voskovec and Jan Werich, was closed. After Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939, Chamberlain declared war on the Nazis. The Second World War had begun. It should be noted that Britain and France entered the war for Gdansk. One could argue that it makes more sense to depend on an independent nation like Czechoslovakia than to deny Germany a corridor to East Prussia. Perhaps they realized that Hitler would stop at nothing. Germany explained that Austria`s incorporation into the Reich led to borders with Czechoslovakia, which posed a great threat to German security, and that it helped encircle Germany from the Western powers. [95] London, FridayThe Munich Agreement gives Hitler (initially) everything he wants, except that it may not quite allow him to get it as quickly as he would have done under Godesberg`s uncircumcised ultimatum.

He will begin tomorrow the invasion of Czechoslovakia, as he did in his speech of 12 September. ==References== He is free to occupy all areas where Sudeten Germans are in the majority, and to do so in rapid stages. Historian Dariusz Baliszewski wrote that during the annexation there was no cooperation between Polish and German troops, but there were cases of cooperation between Polish and Czech troops defending territories against the Germans, for example in Bohumín. [2] In the late 1930s, storm clouds moved over Europe. The main reason was the actions of German leader Adolf Hitler. He made it clear that his long-term goal was to attack the USSR and destroy communism. But in the short term, it has raised concerns in Western and Central Europe. In 1938, he had violated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles by rebuilding German forces and taking control of Austria. In September 1938, he threatened to go to war against Czechoslovakia if the Czechs refused to hand over parts of their country to Germany. Britain and France had treaties with Czechoslovakia, so if there was a war, they would be dragged into it.

In my letter of 18 July 1941, I informed Your Excellency that the King had decided to accredit an extraordinary minister and plenipotentiary to Dr. Beneš as President of the Czechoslovak Republic. I have stated that this decision implies that Her Majesty`s Government in the United Kingdom considers that the legal status of the President and Government of the Czechoslovak Republic is identical to that of other Allied Heads of State or Government established in that country. Her Majesty`s representative status has recently been elevated to ambassador. 29.–30. September 1938: Germany, Italy, Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must hand over its border areas and defenses (the so-called Sudetenland) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these areas between 1 and 10 October 1938. Faced with high tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovak government, Beneš secretly offered on September 15, 1938 to give Germany 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) of Czechoslovakia in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans, whom Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not respond. [13] Joseph Stalin was irritated by the results of the Munich Conference. On 2 May 1935, the France and the Soviet Union sign the Franco-Soviet Mutual Assistance Treaty with the aim of curbing Nazi German aggression.

[56] The Soviets, who had a mutual military aid treaty with Czechoslovakia, felt betrayed by the France, which also had a treaty of mutual military support with Czechoslovakia. [57] However, the British and French mostly used the Soviets as a threat to swing at the Germans. Stalin concluded that the West had actively collaborated with Hitler to extradite a Central European country to the Germans, which raised fears that they would do the same with the Soviet Union in the future and allow the division of the USSR among Western nations. This belief led the Soviet Union to orient its foreign policy towards rapprochement with Germany, which eventually led to the signing of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact in 1939. [58] Citing Munich in foreign policy debates is also common in the 21st century. [107] During Secretary of State John Kerry`s negotiations on the Iran nuclear deal, a Texas Republican lawmaker called the negotiations „worse than Munich.” Kerry himself had invoked Munich in a speech in France, in which he advocated military action in Syria saying, „This is our Munich moment.” [108] Like almost everyone in Europe, including most Germans, Chamberlain thought virtually anything was better than a repeat of the 1914-18 war. He misunderstood Hitler, who he believed could be appeased by appropriate concessions, and neither he nor the French saw a good reason for a war to preserve Czechoslovakia, which had only been founded in 1918. At the same time, when the quest for peace failed, Britain had to buy time to arm itself, although this inevitably meant giving Germany more time to pursue rearmament.

Two days later, all the editorials were devoted to Munich, including the following ones on censorship. We have suffered a total and absolute defeat. You will find that Czechoslovakia will be involved in the Nazi regime in a period that can be measured by years, but also by months. .